A century-old assumption regarding neurons and brain learning is undermined by new experiments
Neurons are the computational elements that compose the brain and their fundamental principles of activity are known for decades. According to the long-lasting computational scheme each neuron functions as a threshold unit. Each neuron sums the incoming electrical signals via its dendrites and when the membrane potential reaches a certain threshold the neuron typically generates a spike to its axon. We present three types of experiments, local and nonlocal time interference, using neuronal cultures, indicating that each neuron functions as a collection of independent threshold units, where the neuron is anisotropically activated following the origin of the arriving signals to the membrane.Finally, dendritic learning as a paradigm shift in brain learning will be briefly discussed. Results call to re-examine neuronal functionalities beyond the traditional framework, and the advanced computational capabilities and dynamical properties of such complex systems.